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The STORYALITY™ Screenwriting Manual – or, PLOTTING PROFITABLE PICTURE$ – A Screenwriting Manual based on The Common Patterns and Practices in the Top 20 RoI (Return on Investment) Films of the Past 70 Years – by JT Velikovsky (2013).

STORYALITY™ Screenwriting Manual

Click this link to read the first 10 pages

Who is this book for? 

  • Screenwriters
  • Directors
  • Producers
  • Actors
  • Movie Studio Executives
  • Film Financiers
  • Film Distributors
  • Professional Story Analysts
  • Agents
  • Anyone in the Film Business… (from Gaffers to Grips to Best Boys to: anyone at all, in the Cast and Crew – in Pre, Production and Post)
  • and also, Film Audiences – and Film Fans.
  • And also – especially for Screenwriting or Film students (and including anyone in either Academy, i.e. in Academia, or even, in AMPAS, The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences).

In other words, it’s really for: anyone who has anything to do with Movies.

So – What are the 10 Key `Points Of Difference’ of STORYALITY™ to the other 2500+ Screenwriting manuals out there on Amazon.com?

Science meets The Arts

THE 10 KEY POINTS OF DIFFERENCE:

(1) The STORYALITY™ Screenwriting Manual is the first screenwriting manual that clearly frames Film Screenwriting within: the proven scientific research on Creativity (Csikszentmihalyi 1988-2006, Sawyer 2012, Simonton 2004 and 2011, et al.)

  • In other words, scientifically: What is Creativity, and How Does It Work?
  • (And – How can I do it better, in Screenwriting and Film-making?)
Screenwriting as a subset of Creativity

Screenwriting and Film-making – as a subset of Creativity and Narratology (Storytelling)

(2) The book also shows Why: widely-held notions of “Aristotelian 3-Act structure” are possibly misconceptions – as they are based on misinterpretations of various translations of Aristotle’s Poetics (c. 335 BCE).

  • So for now, set aside everything you `know’ about so-called “3-Act Structure.” (Most notably from Syd Field’s Screenplay, 1979)
  • The book shows why “Aristotelian 3-Act structure” is possibly a myth, and why it will not help your film go viral – as: Bottom-20 RoI films also have 3 `Acts. (See also Truby 2012 on `Why 3-Act Will Kill Your Writing’)
Abandon Aristotle and his stoopid opinions on `Drama'. Embrace Empirical Facts and The Scientific Method.

Abandon incorrect notions of “Aristotelian 3-Act structure”. Embrace Empirical Facts and The Scientific Method.

(3) Includes a wealth of diagrams, charts, graphs and empirical data – illustrating all the key points of the work (selected examples below)

The Top 20 ROI Films by Release Year (Velikovsky 2012)

The Top 20 ROI Films by Release Year. Since 1968, Top 20 RoI Films have emerged from the Feature Film system, every 2.05 years, on average. Note the 10-year gap (1983-93) and the `system/`market’ correction’ – the four Top 20 RoI films that emerged together in 2004. Note that R squared = 96% (Velikovsky 2012)

In the StoryAlity time-series model above, R squared = 96%, which means we can predict the arrival/due date of a Top 20 RoI Film with 96% accuracy, (i.e. they emerge from the international feature film system, every 2.05 years.)

Plot Trajectories: Hero vs Villain - The Top 20 ROI Films (Velikovsky 2012)

Plot Trajectories: Hero vs Villain – in The Top 20 ROI Films. Note the overall similarities in structure: these are `Villain Triumphant.’ stories, contravening the “good guys win” principle of storytelling in the current screenwriting convention (Velikovsky 2012)

Genre in the Top 20 RoI Films. (Horror is the big green one.)

Genre Breakdown of the Top 20 RoI Films. Notably, 9 out of the Top 20 RoI films are in the Horror Genre, other Top 20 RoI genres include Comedy, Science Fiction, Musical, Gangster, Sports, and Nostalgia. Drama is notably absent. (Velikovsky 2012)

Future Trends: # of Scenes and # of Screenplay Pages/Film Minutes

Predicted Future Trends: # of Scenes and # of Screenplay Pages/Film Minutes. In order of ascending RoI (reading from right to left) the two trendlines converge towards 90 mins and 90 scenes, or an average of a scene per minute. This then is one of the current predictions of StoryAlity Theory about the form of Top 20 RoI Feature Films (Velikovsky 2012)

(4) This work (StoryAlity Theory) exists at the intersection of Science and The Arts.

  • Almost all other Screenwriting Handbooks do not use an empirical and scientific method, in their story/screenplay “principles”. Rather, they use a small number of selective examples in each case, to illustrate a story “principle”. (Which may give the appearance of being: “evidence” in support of of a theory.) [e.g.: See `Notes on the Text’ in Story (1997) by Robert McKee, one of the more popular screenwriting handbooks in the current screenwriting convention.]
  • In other words, the StoryAlity research is based on empirical `real-world’ evidence, and not just speculation.
Science meets The Arts in Film Screenwriting

Science meets The Arts in Film Screenwriting

(5) StoryAlity Theory combines previous peer-reviewed academic research on: Creativity, Narratology, Screenwriting, Memetics, Evolution and Holons. (See: Csikszentmihalyi, Sawyer, Simonton, McIntyre, Novrup-Redvall, Kerrigan, Macdonald, Dawkins, Blackmore, Dennett, Darwin and Koestler.)

StoryAlity_Study_Findings

(6) Also uses counter-examples (a control group) to demonstrate why the converse of the StoryAlity Theory is also true, comparing common story/screenplay/film elements in the Top 20 RoI Films – to – the Bottom 20 RoI Films. (Almost all other Screenwriting Manuals use individual `illustrative and selective’ examples of their so-called Story “principles” – but also tend to ignore counter-examples – which is: neither empirical, nor scientific, as a methodology.) 

The RoI bell curve. High RoI Films are those that go viral. - It's not that hard.

The Film RoI bell-curve. The Top 20 RoI Films are those that went the most `viral’ via word-of-mouth in international theatrical cinema release. By contrast, the Bottom 20 RoI Films went the least `viral’ (when film production budget is compared to audience reach).

(7) STORYALITY – Directly addresses three real-world (industrial) problems in the Film Screenwriting Field and Domain, that every Individual Screenwriter faces in their professional career – namely:

  • 98% of screenplays go unmade,
  • 7 in 10 films loses money, and
  • The current `screenwriting convention’ (as identified by Macdonald, 2004) is neither empirical nor scientific, and is largely based on quasi-Aristotelian notions of Drama. (Macdonald, PhD thesis, 2004)
  • The book therefore gives screenwriters and filmmakers knowledge, information and writing tools to help avoid these problems, given Probability Theory (or in other words: without offering any guarantees, suggests `possible winning strategies’ in Bourdieu’s terms).
7 in 10 feature films lose money

7 in 10 feature films lose money (Vogel, 2011 and De Vany, 2004)

Only 2% of screen ideas/screenplays are produced

Only 2% of screen ideas/screenplays presented to producers for potential production are produced (Macdonald 2004)

(8) This new knowledge in StoryAlity challenges – and aims to correct (with empirical evidence) – almost everything you think you know, about Film Screenwriting, and the existing `screenwriting convention’. (The information and screenwriting guidelines presented in the existing 2500+ handbooks, on Screenwriting on Amazon.com) and shows why there are currently many faulty assumptions in the Domain of Screenwriting and Film.

The existing books on Screenwriting are not Empirical nor Scientific.

The existing books on Screenwriting are not Empirical nor Scientific.

The Scientific Method

The Scientific Method

(9) StoryAlity Theory enables you as a screenwriter and/or filmmaker to use scientific evidence and probability theory to enable your own film story/screenplay/film to have a higher probability of reaching the widest possible audience, for the least film production budget. (i.e. going `viral’ via word-of-mouth.)

The Feature Film Domain as a System (derived from Csikszentmihalyi 1996)

The Feature Film Domain as a System, using the DIFi (Domain, Individual, Field interaction) systems model of Creativity (Csikszentmihalyi :1988-2006)

  • In other words, How to create a film story that has a higher probability of going `viral’..? (But wait, does correlation equal causality? No – but: if the Top 20 RoI films have about 30 things in common – that the Bottom 20 RoI films don’t – it is likely very useful to know what they are.)
Trojan Horse

StoryAlity Theory frames a screenplay and film as a memeplex (a holarchy of memes), as analogous to a conceptual `Trojan Horse’ – which may convey your intended message/themes to your intended audience in the culture/`meme pool’.

(10) Researched and written as part of an ongoing interdisciplinary doctoral research study (primarily based in the Humanities and Communication Arts) by: a professional film story analyst, and screenplay assessor for major film studios, with over 20 years of screen industry experience and who is also a million-selling Transmedia writer, award-winning film screenwriter, a former national games market analyst, and judge for the national writer’s guild. 

JT Velikovsky

JT Velikovsky

The study combines theories from the disciplines of narratology, psychology, sociology, philosophy, memetics, economics, statistics, probability, film studies and communication theory – allowing film (and also: transmedia) storytellers to discover more effective film storytelling techniques, and ideally to enjoy a sustainable filmmaking and/or screenwriting career.

You Are Here

StoryAlity – You Are Here

In short – the book continues a scientific and empirical revolution in Creativity, Screenwriting and Filmmaking. (See earlier works by: Csikszentmihalyi, Sawyer, Simonton, and Macdonald, Novrup-Redvall, et al.)

Both Biology and Culture evolve. Try and stop 'em.

The Film Screenwriting Scientific Evolution Revolution.

Top 20 RoI Films - Scene Lengths

Top 20 RoI Films – Number of Scenes and Durations  (Derived and analysed by the author from a RoI data set provided courtesy of Nash Information Services LLC: http://www.the-numbers.com/movies/records/budgets.php)

STORYALITY™ Screenwriting Manual

WHO IS THIS BOOK FOR?

Confused Crowd

This book is for – aspiring – or even experienced:

  • Screenwriters
  • Directors
  • Producers
  • Actors
  • Movie Studio Executives
  • Film Financiers
  • Film Distributors
  • Professional Story Analysts
  • Agents
  • Anyone in the Film Business… (from Gaffers to Grips to Best Boys to: anyone at all, in the Cast and Crew – in Pre, Production and Post)
  • and also, Film Audiences – and Film Fans.
  • And also – especially for Screenwriting or Film students (and including anyone in either Academy, i.e. in Academia, or even, in AMPAS, The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences).

In other words, it’s really for: anyone who has anything to do with Movies. 

This Means YOU

This Means You

StoryAlity_Small

Q: Is the Ebook only for people who have a Kindle?

A: No. In fact – it is highly recommended that you read it on a computer (e.g. using the free Amazon Kindle Reader for PC or Mac) so that you can more easily access the extra links to additional information on the web contained in the manual.

The STORYALITY™ Screenwriting Manual is divided into 2 parts:

STORYALITY™ Screenwriting Manual

Part 1 of the Ebook – Presents an Analysis of the Top 20 RoI Films, including:

  • What is RoI? (i.e.: Return on Investment)
  • What are the Top 20 – and also, the Bottom 20 – RoI Films at the international theatrical cinema box office?
  • On Scientific and Empirical research in Story/Screenplay/Film
  • On Scientific Paradigms
  • On Story `paradigms’ – versus Story `syntagms’
  • On the Frequency of Top 20 RoI films
  • Why William Goldman was possibly wrong about “Nobody Knows Anything” in Film
  • Towards Solving The 3 Biggest Problems in Film (for any Screenwriter and/or Filmmaker)
  • The Ten Common Story Elements of the Top 20 RoI Films
  • The 10-Act StoryAlity™ screenplay story structure syntagm
  • On Genre in the Top 20 RoI Films
  • The Premise, Theme, Character, Structure and Stakes in the Top 20 RoI Films
  • On `Villain Triumphant’ Endings in the Top 20 RoI Films
  • On Character `Arcs’ (or the lack, thereof) in the Top 20 RoI Films
  • Why the new scientific knowledge in this book mostly contradicts `the current screenwriting convention’

The Film ROI (return on investment) bell curve

The Film RoI (Return on Investment) bell curve

Part 2 of the Ebook – Shows you how to use the StoryAlity™ system – to increase the probability of your own story/screenplay/film going viral, including:

  • Frequently-Asked Questions
  • How to write a film screenplay using the StoryAlity™ Screenplay System
  • The 30 Guidelines for any aspiring writer/maker of high-RoI (i.e. viral) Films
  • The Common Characteristics of the archetypal `High-RoI Film’
  • On Creative Practice Theory (i.e.: Csikszentmihalyi’s systems model of Creativity meets Bourdieu’s practice theory of cultural production)
  • On Romantic myths of Creativity (in Screenwriting and Film) versus the rational view of Creativity
  • On Creativity in Screenwriting and Film (on creating a film that is `novel and appropriate’)
General Model of Creativity color

General Model of Creativity – Csikszentmihalyi & Wolfe (2000)

Important Differences from the StoryAlity blog: The book itself is not merely a re-presentation of the information on this, the StoryAlity™ weblog, but – Part 2 of the STORYALITY™ Screenwriting Manual includes clear Instructions on how to use the STORYALITY™ Screenplay System – to create your own screenplay and film, that given the scientific and empirical evidence from the Top 20 RoI films of the past 70 years, has a higher probability of going viral – or in other words – reaching the widest possible cinema audience, for the least Film production budget. (Whether the budget is as low as $7000 – or as high as $40 million)

For more About The Author, see this page.

A comprehensive literature survey in The Economics Of Movies (McKenzie 2012) reveals a vast array of literature: despite that the literature survey is excellent, none of the literature/research surveyed, tells us much of any use about what makes a movie successful

Almost all studies conclude, as does De Vany in Hollywood Economics (2004), it is THE STORY ALONE:

`It would have been hard to imagine at the outset that by applying high-brow mathematical and statistical science we would end up proving [William] Goldman’s fundamental truth that, in the movies “Nobody knows anything”.

None of our results is more surprising than finding that hard-headed science puts the creative process at the very center of the motion picture universe. There is no formula. Outcomes cannot be predicted.

There is no reason for management to get in the way of the creative process.

Character, creativity and good storytelling trump everything else.’ 

(De Vany 2004: 6 – emphasis mine)

The starting point for this StoryAlity research could be identified as the finding above, from De Vany in Hollywood Economics (2004): “Character, creativity and good storytelling trump everything else.“.

What, therefore, can we analyze in: the Creativity, and `good storytelling’ in the Top 20 RoI Films? (Noting that `Character’ is a subset of `good storytelling’.)

And – for more on the conceptual and scientific basis of this work, see:

Creativity (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996)

Also Explaining Creativity (Sawyer, 2012, 2nd Edition):

Sawyer, RK (2012) Explaining Creativity: The Science of Human Innovation, 2nd Edn, Oxford University Press, New York.

And GREAT FLICKS: Scientific Studies of Cinematic Creativity and Aesthetics by DK Simonton (2011). 

Great Flicks: Scientific Studies of Cinematic Creativity and Aesthetics (Simonton 2011)

I highly recommend these excellent works by Csikszentmihalyi, Sawyer and Simonton. They represent a continuation of the ongoing Scientific revolution in the Domains of Creativity, Film and Screenwriting.

Can somebody do me a favor? Tell this guy, "Nobody knows anything".

Another scientific revolutionary (public domain image – Albert Einstein)

With specific reference to the infamous statement by the extremely talented screenwriter William Goldman  “Nobody knows anything…” (in Film) I would suggest that Simonton answers this question, in Great Flicks (2011):

`What Do We Know?

Lots! Perhaps the single most critical lesson is that there’s more than one kind of great film. There are movies that make big money, motion pictures that rake in the awards, and films that garner critical acclaim.

And even these three groups of criteria have subgroups. In the case of movie awards, for example, we must take care to distinguish the honors defining the four creative clusters – the dramatic, visual, technical and musical.

Not only are these four awards largely independent of each other, but they also feature contrasting correlations with other criteria of film greatness, including box office returns, best picture honours and rave reviews.’

(Simonton 2011: 190)

Great Flicks and StoryAlity

The overlap of `Great Flicks ‘ – and `StoryAlity’

By way of comparison, where GREAT FLICKS (2011) looks at critical successThe STORYALITY™ Screenwriting Manual looks at commercial (viral) success, and also shows how to create your own story/screenplay/film that has a greater probability of going `viral’. There is a notable separation between films that are a commercial success and films that attain critical success and awards. (There is however, some overlap. Two of the Top 20 RoI films won Oscars, and some of them won awards at the Sundance film festival.)

StoryAlity Spirality

CORRELATIONS WITH OTHER SCREENWRITING RESEARCH:

The StoryAlity study of the Top 20 RoI films combines the underlying theories (and philosophies) used by many other thought-leaders/researchers/scholars in the field of Screenwriting:

  • Ian W Macdonald uses Bourdieu in his 2004 PhD thesis, and Eva Novrup-Redvall (2012) uses Csikszentmihalyi’s systems model of creativity; the StoryAlity study of the Top 20 RoI Films combines both Bourdieu and Csikszentmihalyi’s major theories, to result in Creative Practice Theory.
  • In Screenwriting: History, Theory and Practice (2009), Steven Maras challenges `3-Act structure’, and also takes up the problem of `the gospel of story’. Maras (rightly) asks: Why has story (structure and plot, ranging from Aristotle to Freytag to Polti) come to dominate the discourse on screenwriting, from Field to McKee? And, what of Kathryn Millard’s questions (from The Journal of Screenwriting): “What does it mean to write for the cinema?” (see: Maras 2009, pp 174-178)
  • In Me and You and Memento and Fargo: How Independent Screenplays Work (2007)JJ Murphy notes that independent screenplays often have no character arcs. This correlates with the findings of the StoryAlity study (perhaps not surprisingly, as over three-quarters of the Top 20 RoI films are independent films.) To quote from Murphy (2007):       

`(Screenplay) Manual writers all suggest that protagonists all undergo a transformation, often referred to as “character arc”, in the course of the film. McKee, for instance writes: “Taking this principle further yet: the finest writing not only reveals true character, but arcs or changes that inner nature, for better or worse, over the course of the telling.”

Although less emphatic in the need for screenwriters to employ a character arc, Linda Seger suggests that the best films have them: “Not every film needs a transformational arc, although many of the best films will show at least one of the characters becoming transformed in the course of living out the story. Usually the character transformed is the protagonist.”

Richard Walter’s similar requirement that characters must “grow and develop throughout the tale” is violated in quite a number of independent films.

Willie does not really change in Stranger Than Paradise. Neither do Jerry and Marge in Fargo, nor Carol in Safe, nor Leonard Shelby in Memento, nor any of the characters in Elephant, Gummo, or Slacker.

Only seven (of the twelve) independent films described here have what could be construed as traditional romance characters. Not many of the actual romances in the films that do have them, however, end very happily.

Syd Field writes: “If you’re ever in doubt about how to end your story, think in terms of an `up’ ending.”

Yet very few independent filmmakers do.

In fact, of the twelve films analysed in the following pages, only Me and You and Everyone We Know and Fargo have what could be termed an upbeat ending, and Fargo’s ending easily could be interpreted as a parody of that very notion.’

(Murphy 2007, pp. 19-20)

In other words, the scientific and empirical study of the Top 20 RoI films revealed in The StoryAlity Screenwriting Manual directly challenges the existing `screenwriting convention’ (as prescribed in the popular “screenplay guru” manuals, such as Field, Walter, Seger and McKee). Given its scientific and empirical method, StoryAlity has been called `a screenwriting knowledge bombshell’.

In Cinematic Success Criteria and their Predictors (2009), Simonton finds:

‘It would greatly accelerate our comprehension of cinematic success if researchers would attack the phenomenon in a more coordinated manner.’

(Simonton 2009: 417).

StoryAlity takes up Simonton’s scientific and empirical approach to studying cinematic critical success, with its study of high-RoI cinematic success.

StoryAlity_Small

So whether you are: an aspiring – beginning – or experienced Screenwriter and/or Filmmaker – The STORYALITY™ Screenwriting Manual – or, PLOTTING PROFITABLE PICTURE$ Amazon Kindle EBook is 200 pages that may forever change the way you look at Story, Screenplays, and Film.

STORYALITY™ Screenwriting Manual

"Okay, brains down, everyone - pizza's here!"

Aristotle and Plato in the School of Athens, possibly even speculating on the principles of High-RoI Film Theory.

And if you have not yet viewed it, a great introduction to STORYALITY™ Theory is – the 30-minute online i-doc (interactive documentary) here:

This Means YOU

Click the image above to view the StoryAlity Theory i-doc (30 mins)

See also the chapter in this book:

StoryAlity #132The holon/parton structure of the Meme, the unit of culture (and narreme, or unit of story)

Comments always welcome.

——————————————–

JT Velikovsky

High-RoI Story/Screenplay/Movie and Transmedia Researcher

The above is (mostly) an adapted excerpt, from my doctoral thesis: “Communication, Creativity and Consilience in Cinema”. It is presented here for the benefit of fellow screenwriting, filmmaking and creativity researchers. For more, see https://aftrs.academia.edu/JTVelikovsky

JT Velikovsky is also a produced feature film screenwriter and million-selling transmedia writer-director-producer. He has been a professional story analyst for major film studios, film funding organizations, and for the national writer’s guild. For more see: http://on-writering.blogspot.com/

————————————

REFERENCES:

Blackmore, Susan J. (1999), The Meme Machine (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Bourdieu, Pierre (1986), ‘`The Forms of Capital’’, in John G. Richardson (ed.), Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press), 241-58.

Bourdieu, Pierre and Nice, Richard (trans.) (1977), Outline of a Theory of Practice (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Bourdieu, Pierre and Johnson, Randal (ed.) (1993), The Field of Cultural Production: Essays on Art and Literature(New York: Columbia University Press).

Burnard, Pamela (2012), Musical Creativities in Practice (Oxford: Oxford University Press) xv, 308 p.

Brockman, John (2010), This Will Change Everything: Ideas That Will Shape the Future (1st edn.; New York, NY: Harper Perennial) xxiii, 390 p.

Bulwer-Lytton, E. (1830) `Paul Clifford‘, Colburn & Bentley, London

Csikszentmihalyi, M (1996), Creativity: Flow and the Psychology of Discovery and Invention, 1st edn, HarperCollins, New York.

Csikszentmihalyi, M (2004) `Flow – the secret to happiness’ at TED Conference in 2004 (TED Conferences LLC, 2004). Between 10-11 mins, Csikszentmihalyi speaks on `The Ten Year Rule’ (See: http://www.ted.com/talks/mihaly_csikszentmihalyi_on_flow.html). See also: The Ten-Year Rule in Dictionary of Creativity: Terms, Concepts, Theories & Findings in Creativity Research, Compiled and edited by Eugene Gorny, Netslova.ru, 2007.

Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly (1996), Creativity: Flow and the Psychology of Discovery and Invention (1st edn.; New York: HarperCollins) viii, 456 p.

Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly and Wolfe, Rustin (2000), ‘New Conceptions and Research Approaches to Creativity: Implications for a Systems Perspective of Creativity in Education’, in K. A.  Heller, et al. (eds.), International Handbook of Giftedness and Talent (2nd ed. edn.; Amsterdam; Oxford: Elsevier).

Csikszentmihalyi in Henry, Jane (2006), Creative Management and Development (3rd edn.; London: SAGE) xii, 259 p.

Csikszentmihalyi M – in Brockman, John (2010), This Will Change Everything: Ideas That Will Shape the Future (1st edn.; New York, NY: Harper Perennial) xxiii, 390 p.

Darwin, Charles (2001) On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or, The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life, Sydney: Electric Book Co.

De Vany, Arthur S. (2004), Hollywood Economics: How Extreme Uncertainty Shapes The Film Industry (Contemporary political economy series; London ; New York: Routledge) xvii, 308 p.

Field, Syd (1979), Screenplay: The Foundations of Screenwriting (A Delta book; New York: Dell Pub. Co.) 212 p.

Kerrigan, S. (2011), ‘Creative Documentary Practice: Internalising the Systems Model of Creativity through documentary video and online practice’, PhD thesis, The University of Newcastle (http://hdl.handle.net/1959.13/929852)

Koestler, A. (1964), The Act of Creation, Hutchinson, London.

Koestler, A (1967) The Ghost In The Machine, Hutchinson, London.

Kuhn, Thomas S. and Hacking, Ian (2012), The Structure of Scientific Revolutions(4th edn.; Chicago ; London: University of Chicago Press) xlvi, 217 p.

Kupferberg, F. (2006), Rethinking the Pedagogical Sociology (Copenhagen: Hans Reitzels).

Macdonald, Ian W. (2004), ‘The Presentation of the Screen Idea in Narrative Film-making’, PhD Thesis, (Leeds Metropolitan University).

Maras, S (2009), Screenwriting: History, Theory and Practice, Wallflower Press, London; New York.

McKee, Robert (1999), Story: Substance, Structure, Style, and the Principles of Screenwriting (London: Methuen) 466 p.

McKenzie, Jordi (2012), ‘The Economics of Movies: A Literature Survey’, Journal of Economic Surveys, 26 (1), 42-70.

McIntyre, Phillip (2006), ”Paul McCartney and the creation of “Yesterday”: The systems model in operation”, Popular Music, 25 (2), 201-19.

McIntyre, Phillip (2008), ‘The Systems Model of Creativity: Analyzing the Distribution of Power in the Studio’, Journal of the Art of Record Production, Vol.: Supplement to ARP08, The Peer – Reviewed Proceedings of the 2008 Art of Record Production Conference, Issue no. 4.

— (2008), ‘Creativity and Cultural Production: A study of contemporary western music songwriting’, Creativity Research Journal, 20 (1), 40-52.

— (2012), Creativity and Cultural Production: Issues for Media Practice (Basingstoke; New York: Palgrave Macmillan) vii, 233 p.

Murphy, JJ (2007), Me and You and Memento and Fargo: How Independent Screenplays Work, Continuum, New York.

Novrup Redvall, E. (2012), ”A systems view of film-making as a creative practice’ ‘, Northern Lights Yearbook of Film and Media Studies [Film and Media Production: Convergence, Creativity and Collaboration]. , 10 (1), 57-73.

Postill, J. (2010), ‘Introduction: Theorising media and practice. ‘, in B. Bräuchler and J. Postill (eds.), Theorising Media and Practice (Oxford and New York Berghahn).

Sawyer, RK (2012) Explaining Creativity: The Science of Human Innovation, 2nd Edn. Oxford University Press, New York.

Simonton, DK (2004), Creativity in Science: Chance, Logic, Genius, and Zeitgeist, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge; New York.

Simonton, DK (2009), ‘Cinematic Success Criteria and Their Predictors: The Art and Business of the Film Industry’, Psychology & Marketing, 26 (5), 400-20.

Simonton, Dean Keith (2011), Great Flicks: Scientific Studies of Cinematic Creativity and Aesthetics (New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Truby, J (2012), Why 3 Act Will Kill Your Writing, Raindance Festivals Ltd, accessed 18th August, 2012, <http://www.raindance.co.uk/site/why-3-act-story-structure-will-kill-your-writing-truby-NYC&gt;.

For more detailed references of all the above, please see: An Index of Posts for the StoryAlity Blog

and also the references at the bottom of the page on the Creative Practice Theory weblog-page.

ALSO:

People that I have just now realized – I somehow forgot to Thank, in the back of the First Edition – but have since remembered to thank, and am thanking now (and – my humble apologies): Carl Caulfield, Paul Wells, Matt Costello, Gill Leahy, Jill Nelmes, Ben Slater, Alex Munt, Kirsi Rinne, Paolo Russo, Adrian Martin, Matt Hawkins, and Jane Mills. (I will thank you in the 2nd Edition.)

9 thoughts on “StoryAlity #67 – The STORY-ALITY™ Screen-writing Manual

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  4. Pingback: Author Spotlight no.326 – JT Velikovsky | Morgen Bailey's Writing Blog

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