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This post is a collation of Quotes that are Problem-Statements on the hard scientific problem of: Culture.

Namely: The need to define `culture’ universally (across all domains and disciplines), and also to identify the discrete: units, levels, evolutionary mechanisms, and laws of culture, universally, across all domains of culture. I suggest, it is all the one and the same problem.

The meta-science of Evolutionary Culturology provides a solution, a universal:

  • Unit
  • Level (i.e., scale levels: size levels)
  • a set of evolutionary mechanisms (algorithms) and
  • Three Laws of Culture.

(Ev Cult was previously published on, in: 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020).

Velikovsky, J. T. (2016). The HOLON/parton Theory of the Unit of Culture (or the Meme, and Narreme): In Science, Media, Entertainment and the Arts. In A. Connor & S. Marks (Eds.), Creative Technologies for Multidisciplinary Applications (pp. 208-246). IGI Global. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-5225-0016-2.ch009

Velikovsky, J. T. (2017). The HOLON/parton Structure of the Meme, or, The Unit Of Culture. In M. Khosrow-Pour (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology, Fourth Edition (pp. 4666-4678). IGI Global. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-5225-2255-3.ch405

Velikovsky, J. T. (2018). The HOLON/parton Theory of the Unit of Culture (or the Meme, and Narreme): In Science, Media, Entertainment, and the Arts. In IRMA (Ed.), Technology Adoption and Social Issues: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications (pp. 1590-1627). IGI Global. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-5225-5201-7.ch075

Velikovsky, J. T. (2019). The HOLON/parton Structure of the Meme, or The Unit of Culture. In D. B. A. Mehdi Khosrow-Pour (Ed.), Advanced Methodologies and Technologies in Artificial Intelligence, Computer Simulation, and Human-Computer Interaction (pp. 795-811). IGI Global. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-5225-7368-5.ch059

Velikovsky, J. T. (2020). Technology: Memes (Units of Culture). In M. A. Runco & S. R. Pritzker (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Creativity (3rd ed., Vol. 2, pp. 585-604). Elsevier, Academic Press. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-809324-5.23862-5

Below are the collated 50 quotes. And, brief details of how Ev Cult provides a solution to each problem.

It is in fact, all the one problem – the philosophical (and scientific) problem of: What is culture, and how does it work, and why?

(Also; any additional quotes on this problem are always welcome – please add, in the Comments!).

 

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The Problem Statement
(on the hard scientific problem of: Culture)


Source

1

`…according to the views of those who posit the existence of Ideas, those Ideas are at rest and are objects of thought; while if they exist in us, it is impossible that they should be unmoved: for when we move, it follows necessarily that all that is in us moves with us as well. Clearly also they are objects of sensation, if they exist in us: for it is through the sensation of sight that we recognize the Form present in each individual…’

(Aristotle, 335 BCE, p. 367)
 
The Problem: Aristotle is unsure whether there are Ideas, and what they are.  

Ev Cult’s Scientific Solution: Culture is information as: ideas, mental processes, physical processes, and products. Aristotle is quite correct that external information can be internalized (to a perception/an `idea’) visually, and obviously also using the other senses (sound, taste, smell, touch, and the other 15 human senses)[i]

See (Velikovsky 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020) 



2

`…what changes must take place in the brain to produce waking, sleep, and dreams; how light, sounds, odors, tastes, heat, and all the other qualities of external objects impress it with different ideas by means of the senses; how hunger, thirst, and the other internal affections can likewise impress upon it divers[e] ideas; what must be understood by the common sense (sensus communis) in which these ideas are received, by the memory which retains them, by the fantasy which can change them in various ways, and out of them compose new ideas…’

(Descartes, 1637)
 
The Problem: It has apparently escaped most scholars’ notice that Descartes (1637) has mentioned the Selection, Variation, Transmission evolutionary algorithm in culture. And, The Universal Evolutionary Algorithm for Creativity, namely: Combine two (or more) old things to get a new thing, and it works better than the alternatives.  

Ev Cult’s Scientific Solution: Pointing it out now, and again that culture is information as: ideas, processes, products. See the HOLON/parton structure of the units and levels of all culture. Find (identify) the unit(s), using The Three Laws of HOLON/partons as tool/instrument (like: a microscope / telescope, etc.) For the Universal Algorithm for all Creativity, see also: the Fractal Systems Metamodel of Bio-Cultural Evolutionary Creativity from Ev Cult.

See (Velikovsky 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020) 




3

`…the whole itself (and thus number or totality) can be broken up into parts, smaller wholes as it were… there are common parts in the smaller wholes themselves. For example, let the whole be ABC; then AB, BC, and AC will be smaller wholes, its parts. And the disposition of the smallest parts or of the parts assumed to be the smallest (that is, the unities) in relation to each other and to the whole can also be varied… [Both kinds of variation] belong to… the science of whole and parts. If we look at their variability, however, that is, at the quantity of variation, we must turn to numbers and arithmetic.’

(Leibniz, [1666] 1956, p. 77)
 
The Problem: Leibniz (1666) has–almost–described the Three Laws of HOLON/partons–which apply to both units of culture, and, units of biology.  

Ev Cult’s Scientific Solution: Pointing it out now, and again that culture is information as: ideas, processes, products; and that biology has culture (information as systems ideas, systems processes, systems products) in it. See the HOLON/parton structure of the units and levels of all culture. Find / identify the unit(s), using The Three Laws of HOLON/partons as a tool / instrument (like a microscope/telescope, etc.)

See (Velikovsky 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020) 



4

`So far I have talked of memes as though it was obvious what a single unit-meme consisted of. But of course it is far from obvious. I have said a tune is one meme, but what about a symphony: how many memes is that? Is each movement one meme, each recognizable phrase of melody, each bar, each chord, or what?’

(Dawkins, 1976, p. 195)
 
The Problem: Until (Velikovsky 2016), it was unclear scientifically what the discrete unit(s) and scale-levels of all culture were–across all domains of culture.  

Ev Cult’s Scientific Solution: See the HOLON/parton structure of the units and scale-levels of all culture. Find/identify the unit(s), using The Three Laws of HOLON/partons as tool/instrument (like: a microscope/telescope, etc.) However–units of culture are not: autopoietic (`self-replicating’) systems. They are simply information, as ideas, processes, products.

See (Velikovsky 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020) 



5

`Another objection, discussed… in Susan Blackmore’s illuminating chapter on ‘Three problems with memes’ is that we do not know what memes are made of or where they reside. Memes have not yet found their Watson and Crick; they even lack their Mendel.’

(Dawkins, 1999, p. xii)
 
The Problem: Until (Velikovsky 2016), it was unclear scientifically what the discrete unit(s) and scale-levels of all culture were–across all domains of culture.  

Ev Cult’s Scientific Solution: `Culture’ (i.e., ideas, processes, products) is explained via concepts from Information and Communication Science. Units of culture are ideas, processes, and products. See the HOLON/parton structure of the units and levels of all culture. Find/identify the discrete unit(s), using The Three Laws of HOLON/partons as tool/instrument (like: a microscope/telescope, etc.) The Three Laws explains the growth and development of units of culture. See also the Fractal Systems Metamodel of Bio-Cultural Evolutionary Creativity from Ev Cult.

See (Velikovsky 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020) 






6

`Defining the term “culture” is very challenging: it has been described as both a “notoriously overbroad concept” (Song 2009: 177) and a “notoriously ambiguous concept” (Eisenberg 2009: 7)… In the political and legal spheres, there is widespread disagreement about what culture is… There are four main ways in which culture has been interpreted: as an encompassing group, as social formation, in dialogic terms, and in identity terms.’

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Lenard, 2020)
 
The Problem: Until (Velikovsky 2016), it was unclear scientifically what the discrete unit(s) and scale-levels of all culture were–across all domains of culture.  

Ev Cult’s Scientific Solution: Culture is information as: ideas, processes (mental, and physical), products. In Ev Cult, it changes phase-state between these 4 categories, via the i⇌ P evolutionary algorithm. See the HOLON/parton structure of the units and scale-levels of all culture.

See (Velikovsky 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020) 




7

`The meaning of the term “culture” has been highly contested, especially within anthropology (Kroeber and Kluckhohn 1952; Baldwin et al. 2006). The first highly influential definition came from Edward Tylor (1871, 1), who opens his seminal anthropology text with the stipulation that culture is, “that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.” Subsequent authors have worried that Tylor’s definition packs in too much, lumping together psychological items (e.g., belief) with external items (e.g., art).’

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Prinz, 2020)
 
The Problem: There are 300+ extant definitions of “culture”, and no scientific consensus.  

Ev Cult’s Scientific Solution: Culture is information as: (1) ideas, (2) processes (2A: mental, and 2B: physical), (3) products; these 4 categories of culture can all be both internal (i-memes) and/or external (e-memes). In Ev Cult, information changes phase-state between these 4 categories, via the i⇌ P evolutionary algorithm.

See (Velikovsky 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020) 




8

`Some might quibble with the methods of data collection, or how the different units (words, religions, technologies, web pages) are defined. It also presupposes that this variation is discrete and can be counted, rather than being continuous, in which case there would be no discrete units (e.g., words, patents) to count… These are all important issues, and no doubt methods for quantification can be improved.’  

(Mesoudi 2011, p. 29)
 
The Problem: How to define different units of culture? (e.g., words, religions, units of technology, web pages, patents)? Are these units discrete, or continuous? How to improve/solve the quantification/`unitization’ problem?  

Ev Cult’s Scientific Solution: Domains in culture are problem-solutions. Units of culture within domains are tools; problem solutions. See the HOLON/parton structure of the units and levels of all culture. Find/identify the unit(s), using The Three Laws of HOLON/partons as tool/instrument (like: a microscope/telescope, etc.)

See (Velikovsky 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020) 





9

`…as the application of evolutionary logic becomes more popular in the public sphere, the field of cultural evolution will benefit by fostering a stronger, more unified empirical and methodological foundation for evolutionary approaches to sociocultural questions (Smith et al. 2001; Mace, 2014).’

(Youngblood & Lahti, 2018, p. 2)
 
The Problem: All disciplines need a unified, standard, universal, empirical and methodological foundation to study the evolution of socioculture, and in particular to accurately answer sociocultural research questions.  

Ev Cult’s Scientific Solution: See: (1) the HOLON/parton structure of the units and levels of all culture. (2) The Three Laws of HOLON/partons. (3)Look for the specific, different, Evolutionary Algorithms operating on those units (e.g., SVT, ST, BV-SR, i⇌ P, etc.) on: macro, meso, and micro levels of scale. (4) The FSM of BCEC. (5) Examine: bio-psycho-socio-culture all at once. (6) Use Systems Science. (7) It is complex; computers are required.

See (Velikovsky 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020) 


10

`As these methods become more sophisticated and fine-grained, we can anticipate future cultural equivalents of Watson and Crick making key discoveries concerning how information is stored in the brain, expressed as behavior, and transmitted to other brains. If this has anything like the impact in the study of cultural evolution that the work of the actual Watson and Crick had in biology, then we can expect major repercussions in all of the other disciplines.’

(Mesoudi 2011, p. 216)
 
The Problem: How to solve/identify: coarse, medium, and finer (and ever-finer) grains of analysis in Cultural Evolution? Watson and Crick (& Franklin) discovered the structure of DNA (1953). So, what is the structure of culture? And, once discovered–does it also apply to all disciplines?  

Ev Cult’s Scientific Solutions: See: (1) The HOLON/parton structure of the units and levels of all culture (Velikovsky, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020). (2) The HOLON/parton (and its 3 Laws) apply at all systems-size-scales: sub-atoms (i.e., Feynman’s 1975 partons), atoms, molecules, organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms, kin groups, social groups, corporate/legal groups, states, nations, the biosphere of Earth, solar systems, galaxies, the universe, the (probably, simulated) multiverse. (3) The scientific tools and methods of Evolutionary Culturology apply to all disciplines and domains in culture. Biology and Culture both evolve via these mechanisms.  

See (Velikovsky 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020) 

11

`The range of phenomena listed in Table 11.2 raises the issue of what the appropriate scale is when measuring rates of technological change. This is another way of framing the question—What are the units of cultural evolution?—which has been a source of confusion and contention within the field (e.g., Aunger 2000). We suggest that it is not inherently problematic, with the understanding that the pragmatics of quantification may be problematic in particular cases, and truly universal measures that can be applied across different technologies remain elusive.’

(Mesoudi, et al., in Richerson & Christiansen, 2013, p. 208)
 
The Problem: (1)What is the appropriate scale when measuring rates of technological change? (2) What are the units of cultural evolution? (3)Is there a simple solution to the pragmatics of quantification? (4) Are there any truly universal measures that can be applied across different technologies?  

Ev Cult’s Scientific Solutions: (1) The HOLON/parton scales `up’ and `down’ for all size-scales. Note, exactly, when new units and levels (e.g., larger systems/subsystems, or, units of culture: ideas, processes, products) emerge. (2) The discrete unit of culture (idea, process, product) is the HOLON/parton. (3) Units and scale-levels of HOLON/partons. Units of culture are the outputs and (often, recursive) inputs of systems. (4) The HOLON/parton is literally a universal measure (it also suggests: multiverses.) It is a one-size-fits-all tool for quantification/unitization in Cultural Evolution. 

See (Velikovsky 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020) 


12

`The grain problem needs to be taken seriously for at least two reasons. First, ignoring the grain problem means that different researchers using different grains of description risk not being able to agree on observed degrees of fidelity for the same tradition. Worse, they might even convince themselves that cultural transmission is generally of high or low fidelity when their differing assessments are, in fact, mostly driven by the different grains of description with which they describe cultural variation. One way to solve this issue is for cultural evolutionists to agree and abide by convention on a choice of granularity at which different types of traditions or different domains of cultural evolution are best studied. How these conventions will be determined is an open question, with those conventions being likely sensitive to the specific type of traditions (e.g., technologies, art, religion, etc.) under investigation (Acerbi & Mesoudi, 2015).’

(Charbonneau & Bourrat, in press, p. 25)
 
The Problem: What are the exact `grain’ sizes of the units in cultural evolution? What is the discrete fidelity (scale/size) of each unit? …Different researchers use different units (reflecting a lack of: standard units). Can we get a consensus–or, a scientific discovery–of the units? Does the fidelity/grain size change, across the different domains in culture? (technologies, art, religion, languages, etc.?)  

Ev Cult’s Scientific Solutions: (1) The HOLON/parton scales `up’ and `down’ for all size-scales. Use The 3 Laws to find: discrete units, that are a whole–and ALSO a part of a larger unit, at the same time. Note, exactly, when new units and levels (e.g., larger systems/subsystems, or, units of culture: ideas, processes, products) emerge. See the Tables in the Case Studies in this volume on (a) Inventions (`Technology’), (b) Art, (c) Religion, etc. Note that in Ev Cult, all units of culture (Languages, Music, Narratives, Science, Religion, etc.) are in fact tools/technology, for solving problems.

See (Velikovsky 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020) 



13

`In some cultural evolution studies, the unit of analysis is the cultural trait, that is, what is transmitted in the cultural transmission process. Examples of cultural traits include names, fairy tales, ways to tie a knot, recipes for lasagne, hammers, and the like. In others, the unit of analysis is the individual person (see also El Mouden et al. 2014). …One could hope that, when we find the correct unit of analysis for cultural evolution, we would be able to settle the debate. Unfortunately, this might be unlikely, as there is continuing disagreement over how to define a cultural trait. Sperber and Claidiĕre (2008) criticize Richerson and Boyd (2005) for seeming to oscillate between an ‘‘internalist’’ view of cultural traits as ‘‘(mostly) information in brains’’ (ibidem, p. 61) and an ‘‘externalist’’ one where ‘‘some cultural information is stored in artifacts’’ (ibidem, p. 61).’

(Acerbi & Mesoudi, 2015, pp. 492-494)
 
The Problem: What is the correct unit of analysis for Cultural Evolution studies? The trait, or the person? How to (universally) define (identify), a cultural trait?  

Ev Cult’s Scientific Solutions: (1) The unit of both biology (a system: cell; tissue, organ, organ system, organism) and culture (ideas, processes, products) is the HOLON/parton. A family unit, a tribe, a corporation, a state, a nation, the globe, are each: a HOLON/parton. They are each: an idea, a process, and product, all at once. (2) Study the units and levels of geo-bio-psycho-socio-culture in each case, at the same time! (You’ll need a computer: complex systems are: complex.) (3) A cultural trait (e.g., a catchphrase, a hairstyle, national dress style, drinking alcohol, smoking cigarettes, nationalism, fascism, etc.) is a HOLON/parton: an idea, a process, and a product, all at once. In short: See the 4-world ontology of Ev Cult: Information is communicated / transferred / transmitted between: (1) abstract ideas, (2) mental processes (cognition, emotion), (3) physical processes, and (4) products – and, back the other way. (See: the i⇌ P evolutionary algorithm, from Evolutionary Culturology)

See (Velikovsky 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020) 

14

`Are there rich and detailed laws of cultural evolution that apply universally, and thus also to language, and if so what are they?’

(Dediu et al., in Richerson & Christiansen, 2013, p. 304)
 
The Problem: (1) What–if any–are the rich and detailed laws of cultural evolution that apply universally? (2) Including: to language? (3) If they even do exist–what are they?  

Ev Cult’s Scientific Solution: (1)The Three Laws of HOLON/partons. They not only apply universally to all domains in culture, but also to biology (see: Systems Science)! (2) Yes, the Three Laws of HOLON/partons also apply to: Language: i.e., glyph-whole/part (alphabetical symbol-components) →glyph/alphabetical letter →morpheme →word →phrase →clause →sentence →paragraph →section → chapter→ part→ book→ genre→ Domain in culture. (3) The Three Laws of HOLON/partons. In themselves, the 3 Laws are: incredibly simple. Yet via evolutionary algorithms (e.g., SVT, ST, BV-SR, i⇌ P) operating on units of culture in symbolic systems–they also result in the rich and detailed tools–information (ideas, processes, products)–we call `culture’. Culture is information, and, biology also has culture in it. (Organic systems: ideas, processes, products.)

See (Velikovsky 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020) 

15

`A question for future research is whether there are common properties of coordination systems that hold across language, group formation, and religion, but also whether there might be properties unique to language as a cultural system for coordination, due perhaps to the complex multileveled structure of the system.

(Dediu et al., in Richerson & Christiansen, 2013, p. 310)
 
The Problem: Are there common properties of coordination systems that hold across language, group formation, and religion?Are thereproperties unique to language as a cultural system for coordination? Are these due to the complex multileveled structure of the system?    

Ev Cult’s Scientific Solution: (1) Yes: The Three Laws of HOLON/partons. Discrete units either: (a) compete, or (b) co-operate, or, (c) do co-opetition, with other units, on the same scale-level. This applies to: language, to social group formation (Law 2, co-operation, & Law 1 integration `upwards’ also causing: altruism), also religion (note especially Law 3: `Command & Control downwards’), and indeed–the 3 Laws apply to all domains in culture.

See (Velikovsky 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020) 




16

`Can We Formulate a Total Design Space That Can Serve as a Basis for Worldwide Language Comparison? What are the units of comparison across languages and how do we best deal with the fact that phenomena do not match up exactly?’

(Dediu et al., in Richerson & Christiansen, 2013, p. 320)
 
The Problem: (1)What is the total Design Space for worldwide Language comparison? (2) What are the units of comparison, across languages? (3) How do we best deal with the fact that phenomena do not match up exactly?  

Ev Cult’s Scientific Solution: (1) (a) The Three Laws of HOLON/partons. (b) Also used as a diagnostic tool/instrument to locate the discrete units and scale-levels. (c) Evolutionary algorithms (e.g., SVT, ST, BV-SR, i⇌ P), that operate on these discrete units and scale-levels. (2) HOLON/partons. (3) They do all match up, if you use the Three Laws of HOLON/partons! (Also in artificial human languages; in computer languages; in number-systems; etc.). Look also for phase-transitions between idea, process, product, of the exact unit in language, under study.

See (Velikovsky 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020) 

17

`How Much of Language Consists of Subsystems of Tightly Interlinked Traits?’

(Dediu et al., in Richerson & Christiansen, 2013, p. 322)
 
The Problem: How Much of Language Consists of Subsystems of Tightly Interlinked Traits?  

Ev Cult’s Scientific Solution: Any/every domain in culture (e.g., of Language, or Music, or Art, or Science, etc.) is, a larger system (a HOLON/parton, with: a boundary, inputs, outputs, and algorithms inside) made of two smaller self-coupled (sub)systems: (1) the Domain, and (2) the Field (producers & users of the tools/problem-solutions in that domain). So, study the whole system (made of 2 self-coupled sub-systems) at once. A Language itself–as, a separate entity from a Field (i.e., Imagine: a book, containing `The English Language, & How To Use It’) does have algorithms in it (e.g., IF [THIS] then do [THAT]), e.g. `A sentence is supposed to contain a subject and a verb’ [so, IF: composing a sentence, THEN: use a subject & a verb], rules of its grammar (SVO vs. SOV, etc.), spelling, definitions, etc. So look for the algorithms, in any Language. Operating, on: the HOLON/partons!

See (Velikovsky 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020) 

18

`With symbolic systems we therefore have to think about the way that symbols can join to form ever-larger hierarchical structures, and about the ways in which the symbolic elements can be moved and reorganized to produce new meanings. This makes thinking about the generation and transmission of variants in the symbolic system quite difficult, because there are so many interacting factors and levels to consider.’

(Jablonka & Lamb, 2014, p. 200)
 
The Problem: (1) How do symbols join, to form ever-larger hierarchical structures? (2) What are the ways in which the symbolic elements can be moved and reorganized to produce new meanings? (3) How to best simplify all of the complex interacting factors and levels, in symbolic systems?  

Ev Cult’s Scientific Solution: (1) Via the Three Laws of HOLON/partons. (2) Endless permutations and combinations (and mathematical/Boolean logical operations) are possible (Leibniz’s 1666 Ph.D was on this), but only about 1% end up as canon; 99% of random combinations of units of culture (ideas, processes, products) don’t work well / don’t solve any important problems. (This is what The EthiSizer is for, to shed light on the optimal problem-solutions in Popper’s `World 3’ [abstract ideas], rather than waiting for us slow humanimals to do it.) (3) Use the HOLON/parton `lens’, and, evolutionary algorithms (e.g., SVT, ST, BV-SR, i⇌ P), in a simulation (e.g., agent-based models, etc.).

See (Velikovsky 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020) 

19

`Interest in the nature, storage, and transmission of biological information grew out of the debate about units and levels of selection and evolution… The heart of the problem is that groups are made up of individuals, individuals are built from cells, cells contain chromosomes, chromosomes have genes, and selection can occur at any or all of these levels. Yet the higher-level entities are obviously integrated units of function, which can reproduce as a unit, even though they are made up of component parts similar to those that in the evolutionary past were themselves independently reproducing entities. So how did the higher-level entity evolve? Why doesn’t selection among lower-level entities disrupt the functioning of the higher-level entities?’

(Jablonka et al., 2014, p. 337)
 
The Problem: (1)Is the debate about units and levels of selection and evolution solved (in biology, and culture)? (2) …groups are made up of individuals, individuals are built from cells, cells contain chromosomes, chromosomes have genes, and selection can occur at any or all of these levels. (3)Yet the higher-level entities are obviously integrated units of function, which can reproduce as a unit. (4) How did the higher-level entity evolve?(5)Why doesn’t selection among lower-level entities disrupt the functioning of the higher-level entities?’  

Ev Cult’s Scientific Solutions: (1)Seethe HOLON/parton structure of both biology and culture. The Three Laws of HOLON/partons shows why Multi-Level Selection occurs. (2) Those examples are all units and scale-levels of HOLON/partons. (3) Yes, true. Cells, individuals, groups, corporations, states, nations, emerge due to the Three Laws of HOLON/partons.

See (Velikovsky 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020) 
    









20

`…you need to see things from a less close-up perspective. You really need to focus on a unit of some kind, so that you can ask general questions about organisms and their evolution. Such questions are difficult to answer from a pure process-oriented point of view, where you are always seeing the developmental matrix rather than what is generated. The unit that evolutionary theory needs may not be the replicator or the vehicle, but something is needed to allow discussion of the evolution and development of entities. Do you have an alternative?’

(Jablonka et al., 2014, p. 369)
 
The Problem: (1)How to see things from a larger perspective (further away)? (2) How to focus on: a unit? (3) What alternative framework (to `replicators’ and `vehicles’) would allow accurate study and examination (and even: scientific discussion) of the evolution and development of: entities?  

Ev Cult’s Scientific Solutions: (1) See the HOLON/parton lens, on units of biology, and units of culture, and units of bio-culture. (2) Use the Three Laws of HOLON/partons as a tool, to focus on a unit. Note the levels of: discrete, geo-physico-chemico-bio-psycho-socio-anthro-politico-econo-cultural units, in systems. (3) An alternative to `replicators/vehicles’ (e.g., genotypes/phenotypes) is the fractal systems HOLON/parton view of culture as information (ideas, processes, products) in both biology and culture. Ev Cult integrates Systems Science, Information/Communication Science, Creativity Science, Cultural Evolution, and the name `meme’ to mean: a unit of culture, a HOLON/parton.

See (Velikovsky 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020) 





21

`If someone finds one unifying model for all the dimensions of heredity and evolution, it will be wonderful…’

(Jablonka et al., 2014, p. 372)
 
The Problem: We need a unifying model for all the dimensions of heredity and evolution (in both biology and culture).  

Ev Cult’s Scientific Solution: Culture is information, as ideas, processes, products (all are tools, for solving problems). The HOLON/parton view (emerging from Applied Evolutionary Epistemology) applies to both biology, and culture. Rather than `heredity’ (a biological term) consider information-transmission (aka `communication’). Ev Cult suggests, for both biology and culture: (1) The HOLON/parton view; (2) Evolutionary algorithms; (3) (a) Systems, versus their (b) inputs and outputs. See also the Fractal Systems Metamodel of Bio-Cultural Evolutionary Creativity in Ev Cult, for how culture works (and, evolves) in a domain.

See (Velikovsky 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020) 

22

`…an evolutionary application to the study of culture is simply a much harder problem than has previously been appreciated… the locus of cultural evolution was and remains an even harder problem (Huxley 1955). …identifying and theorizing the units of evolution was a very hard problem in biology and is an even harder problem in culture…’

(Hartley & Potts, 2014, pp. 124-6)
 
The Problem: (1) What is the locus of cultural evolution? (2) How to identify and theorize the units of evolution? (These are very hard problems; Watson & Crick even got a Nobel Prize for their solution to the structure of DNA.)  

Ev Cult’s Scientific Solution: (1) The locus of evolution is the HOLON/parton.(2) The structure of the unit of culture is the HOLON/parton. This applies in both biology and culture. Study HOLON/partons in systems, and watch the evolutionary algorithms (e.g., SVT, ST, BV-SR, i⇌ P) that change/alter these units; these HOLON/partons. In all domains in culture.

See (Velikovsky 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020) 
 



23

`The question of how human groups become functionally organized as far as proximate causation is concerned probably has no single answer. Different groups do it in different ways, which empirical inquiry must determine.’

(Wilson, 2015, p. 145)
 The Problem: How do human groups become functionally organized as far as proximate causation?  

Ev Cult’s Scientific Solution: See, the Three Laws of HOLON/partons.

See (Velikovsky 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020) 






24

`Now we are at a point in history when the great problem of human life is to accomplish functional organization at a larger scale than ever.

(Wilson, 2015, p. 146)
 
The Problem: How to unite the 195 nation-states into a whole Earth ethic?  

Ev Cult’s Scientific Solution: See, the Three Laws of HOLON/partons. And see, The EthiSizer.

See (Velikovsky 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020) 




25

`Having successfully identified these basic patterns of coherence and congruence in contrasting basketry, housing, and language traditions, the next task is to try to explain why these local cultures are evolving as hierarchically integrated systems (Boyd et al. 1997).’

(Jordan, 2015, p. 104)   
 
The Problem: Why do (any) local cultures evolve as hierarchically integrated systems?  

Ev Cult’s Scientific Solution: See, the Three Laws of HOLON/partons.

See (Velikovsky 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020) 





26

`The need to rapidly encode and decode implies that spoken language will consist of a sequence of short sound-based units (the precise nature of these units may be controversial, and may even differ between languages, but could correspond to diphones, phonemes, mora, syllables, etc.).’

(Christiansen & Chater, 2016, p. 130)
 
The Problem: The precise nature of the discrete units of spoken (or even written) language is controversial. (It may even differ, between languages? Maybe it corresponds to: diphones, phonemes, mora, syllables, etc…?)  

Ev Cult’s Scientific Solution: The structure of the unit of culture is the HOLON/parton (& Language is just another domain in culture, of around 50,000 domains). See: The Three Laws of HOLON/partons. When used as a diagnostic tool, it provides the discrete units, and their scale-levels.

See (Velikovsky 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020) 

27

`Not having an equivalent of Mendelian genetics in Cultural Evolution is an annoying problem for cultural evolutionists, but we don’t need to wait while the brain scientists work out the answer.’

(Turchin, 2016, p. 31%)
 
The Problem: Not having an equivalent of Mendelian genetics in Cultural Evolution is an annoying problem for cultural evolutionists.  

Ev Cult’s Scientific Solution: The structure of the unit of culture is the HOLON/parton. Observe its Three Laws. Culture is: ideas, processes, products. See the evolutionary algorithms: (e.g., SVT, ST, BV-SR, i⇌ P)   

See (Velikovsky 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020) 




28

`Cultures could be made of elements that need not stick together. These elements have received various names, depending on the author or the century: items, culturgenes [sic], memes, representations, and so on. Herder simply called them traditions…’

(Morin, 2016, p. 3)
 
The Problem: What are the elements (or even, `atomic units’) of: culture? And, do they stick together–or, are they divisible?Lots of names (words) exist, for this hypothetical unit of culture, over historyBut: what is it-?!  

Ev Cult’s Scientific Solution: The structure of the unit of culture is the HOLON/parton. Observe its Three Laws. Culture is: ideas, processes, products. Watch for evolutionary algorithms: (e.g., SVT, ST, BV-SR, i⇌ P). `Atomic units’ is a term from Physics; `elements’ is a term from Chemistry. Both atoms and elements (Hydrogen, Helium, Argon, etc.) are systems, thus HOLON/partons. But guess what? HOLON/partons are the units and scale levels across all: Maths, Physics, Chemistry, Astronomy, Geology, Biology, Psychology, Sociology, Anthropology, Cultural Evolution. Evolutionary Culturology provides a standard unit (measure) for all domains and disciplines of human knowledge (culture). The Sciences, Social Sciences, and Arts/Humanities. This is: consilience, the unity of knowledge. 

See (Velikovsky 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020) 
 



29

`If culture can be decomposed into more or less independent traditions, we may like to know how far such decompositions may go. Some authors have suggested that it would stop at some sort of atomic entity, some elementary unit of culture.’

(Morin, 2016, p. 43).
 
The Problem: How far `down’ (smaller) can culture be de-composed? Maybe it stops at some sort of atomic entity, some elementary unit of culture?  

Ev Cult’s Scientific Solution: The structure of the discrete unit of culture is the fractal HOLON/parton. Observe its Three Laws. They are also, 3 universal Laws of: Physics, Systems, Information, Biology (Life), and Culture.

See (Velikovsky 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020) 





30

`Geologists do not ignore the findings and models of physics, they make constant use of them. The same goes for ecologists with biological findings, and for evolutionary biologists with molecular genetics. It was only recently that social scientists realized that these empirical disciplines were all actually making progress, and that may have to do with the systematic use of reduction in this sense, promising a vertical integration of different fields and disciplines. That integration is now happening.’

(Boyer, 2018, pp. 277-8)
 
The Problem: We need consilience, the vertical integration of all disciplines of knowledge. It’s happening, but not fast enough–as Earth currently faces major crises…(climate, inequality, unethical behavior, wars, etc.)  

Ev Cult’s Scientific Solution: The HOLON/parton view of biology and culture, in all domains. All culture evolves, in all domains. We are understanding biology to predict and control it (cure cancer, diseases, etc.). We now need to cure cultural cancer. See: The EthiSizer.

See (Velikovsky 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020) 





31

`How can a stream of behavior be divided into discrete chunks? For a behavior to be “new,” by how much, and in what way, must it be different from the “old” behavior? These “unitization” or “individuation” questions are important because in order for change to be explicable by Darwinian selection, whether genetic or cultural, the thing-that-is-changing must be quantifiable. However, it is very hard to answer in a principled and rigorous way questions about the unitization of psychological grist—ideas and behavior (Brown, 2014). Arguably, this is the reason why, after thirty years of conceptual development, memetics still has not been converted into an empirical research program, and its hypotheses still rarely inspire observation and experiment.’

(Heyes, 2018, pp. 37-8)
26
The Problem: What are the units of: ideas, and behavior?    

Ev Cult’s Scientific Solution: The HOLON/parton view of biology and culture, in all domains. Culture is ideas, processes, products. Processes (behavior) are: algorithms. See also: the i⇌ P evolutionary algorithm.

See (Velikovsky 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020) 



32

`How can thirty trillion cells make a being that seems so much like one single entity with one set of goals? How can I be made of so many cells yet feel so unitary?’

(Aktipis, 2020, pp. 5-6)
 
The Problem: If a human is 30 trillion units (cells), why does it feel like just the one unit to be: me? As a holobiont, I’m more nonhuman than human cells!  

Ev Cult’s Scientific Solution: Simply because of the fractal HOLON/parton structure of the unit of culture (and, biology)–and the Three Laws of HOLON/partons. A biological system has a homeostat (a brain/a psychology).

See (Velikovsky 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020) 





33

`…Which conditions promote or endanger human well-being, learning and cooperation? …Which behaviors promote or endanger human well-being, learning and cooperation? …What role can (and should) our technologies, policies and regulations, social norms, media, and education play in creating these environmental conditions and in promoting these skills?’

(Hanisch & Eirdosh, 2020, p. 96)  
 
The Problem: How to scientifically determine, the conditions and behaviors that promote or endanger human well-being, learning and cooperation? What role can (and should) our technologies, policies and regulations, social norms, media, and education play, in creating these optimal environmental conditions and in promoting these skills?  

Ev Cult’s Scientific Solution: Enabled by the 2016 discovery of the units, levels, mechanisms and laws of culture, The EthiSizer from Evolutionary Culturology is one suggested solution to these problems.

See (Velikovsky 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020) 








34

`Never before in the history of our species have we needed to deal with cooperation on this global level, or to think more clearly regarding on which levels different communities are in the same boat.’

(Hanisch & Eirdosh, 2020, p. 93)  
 
The Problem: Never before in the history of our species have we needed to deal with cooperation on this global level, or to think more clearly regarding on which levels different communities are in the same boat.  

Ev Cult’s Scientific Solution: Enabled by the 2016 discovery of the units, levels, mechanisms and laws of culture, The EthiSizer from Evolutionary Culturology is a whole Earth ethic solution to these problems. On a singular, unified, global HOLON/parton view, The EthiSizer is a step toward global cooperation, to analyze units and levels in our global systems integration and cooperation, rather than its unethical opposite, conflict and competition.

See (Velikovsky 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020) 
     



35

`…political systems, justice systems, healthcare systems, economic systems, and so on. Everyone agrees that these systems are far from perfect but reaching agreement on how to improve them may be beyond our grasp… Like our ancestors who survived the last ice age, we might be able to find ways of seeing ourselves as one people. This might encourage us to work more closely together rather than seeing different people as competitors… The fundamental question is: How well will we work together?

(Newson & Richerson, 2021, p. 77%)  
 
The Problem: Reaching global agreement (195 nations) on how to fix our deeply flawed and unethical: political, justice, healthcare, and economic systems. How to unite, and see ourselves as one global people: one unified humanity? Global co-operation, not competition?  

Ev Cult’s Scientific Solution: Ethical Directed Bio-Cultural Evolution, via The EthiSizer, Evolutionary Culturology’s proposed solution to this exact deadly and dangerous existential problem of–and desperate need for–Ethical Culture. Namely what D S Wilson (2015, 2021) calls a whole Earth ethic.

See (Velikovsky 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020) 

36

`We need a theory that can identify the unit of functional organization, and therefore the center of analysis, on a case by case basis.’

(D. S. Wilson, 2020, p. 370)
 
The Problem: The need for a theory that can identify the unit of functional organization, and therefore the center of analysis, on a case by case basis.  

Ev Cult’s Scientific Solution: The HOLON/parton view of biology and culture, in all domains and disciplines.

See (Velikovsky 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020) 





37

`Rather than simply promoting some memes over others, cultural selection may, given sufficient time, build up complex memetic “structures” – informational edifices with some of the properties of organisms.’

(Stewart-Williams, 2018, p. 263)
 
The Problem: Are units of biology and culture alike?  

Ev Cult’s Scientific Solution: The HOLON/parton view of biology and culture, in all domains and disciplines.

See (Velikovsky 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020) 





38

`Culture is an ambiguous and extensive concept with many definitions. Most of such definitions agree in some attributes, and at the same time none are completely compatible… However, most psychologists and anthropologists agree, defining culture as a finite set of socially acquired patterns for thinking, feeling and acting.’

(Ramos et al., 2012, p. 3)
 
The Problem: Culture is an ill-defined term.  

Ev Cult’s Scientific Solution: Culture is (1) ideas, (2) mental processes, (3) physical processes, and (4) products.

See (Velikovsky 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020) 



39

`A remarkable parallel, which to my mind has never been noticed, obtains between the facts of social evolution and the mental growth of the race, on the one hand, and of zoological evolution, as expounded by Mr Darwin, on the other.’

(James, 1880, p. 441)
 
The Problem: Do biology and culture both evolve?  

Ev Cult’s Scientific Solution: Evolutionary algorithms, operating on units (HOLON/partons) in biology and in culture.

See (Velikovsky 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020) 




40

`…experiments, perhaps using transmission chains, could explore to what extent there are isolatable cultural units and, if there are, to what extent they are characterized by longevity, fecundity, and fidelity.’

(Laland & Brown, 2002, p. 236)
 
The Problem: Are there isolatable cultural units?  

Ev Cult’s Scientific Solution: The HOLON/parton structure of all culture, including the unit, scale-level, and its Three Laws.

See (Velikovsky 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020) 





41

`Precisely what are the literary units that endure from century to century? Or, from the axiological viewpoint, what are the literary units that we endow with value, and thus permit to survive?’

(Rancour-Laferriere in Cooke & Turner, 1999, p. 62)
 
The Problem: Precisely what are the literary units that endure?  

Ev Cult’s Scientific Solution: The HOLON/parton structure of all culture, including the unit, scale level, and its Three Laws.

See (Velikovsky 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020) 




42

`The exact process of gene-culture coevolution is the central problem of the social sciences and much of the humanities, and it is one of the great remaining problems of the natural sciences. Solving it is the obvious means by which the great branches of learning can be foundationally united.’

(Wilson in Boyd et al., 2010, p. 102)  
 
The Problem: Determining the exact process of gene-culture coevolution.  

Ev Cult’s Scientific Solution: The HOLON/parton structure of all culture and biology, including the unit, scale-level, and its Three Laws, and evolutionary algorithms in these two self-coupled systems.

See (Velikovsky 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020) 




43

`Any system being the combinations of units of known classes, the first task is to divide up narrative and determine the segments of narrative discourse that can be distributed into a limited number of classes. In a word, we have to define the smallest narrative units.’

(Barthes, [1966] 1975, p. 241)
 
The Problem: Determining the narreme, the unit of story (unit of narrative).  

Ev Cult’s Scientific Solution: Stories are units of culture. Thus narremes (units of narrative, on all size scales: small, medium, large) are also HOLON/partons.

See (Velikovsky 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020) 





44

`The theory of evolution had destroyed the arbitrary limits between the different forms of organic life. There are no separate species; there is just one continuous and uninterrupted stream of life. But can we apply the same principle to human life and human culture? Is the cultural world, like the organic world, made up of accidental changes?’

(Cassirer, 1944, p. 20)
 
The Problem: Does evolution work the same way in biology and human life and culture?  

Ev Cult’s Scientific Solution: Yes.BV-SR in both biology and culture are accidental changes (despite any human creative designers’ best intentions, solutions are never `sighted’ until tested, via the scientific method of 1. Expectation and 2. Experimental Test via trial and error), the problem-solutions that work (in biology and culture) are retained as canon (extant) and the ones that don’t become archive (extinct). See the HOLON/parton structure of all culture (ideas, processes, products) and biology, including the unit, scale-level, and its Three Laws, and (as for the creative process) evolutionary algorithms, in these two self-coupled systems (bio-culture). Using the HOLON/parton lens, evolutionary algorithms (SVT, ST, BV-SR, i=P, etc) and thus the creative processes resulting in 1% canon and 99% archive are identical in both the substrates of biology and culture.

See (Velikovsky 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020) 

45

`The question thus arises: on what does natural selection act? …when we come to model natural selection mathematically, shall we consider genes as the entity selected, or individuals, or even groups?’

(Webster, 2003, p. 106)
 
The Problem: Are there discrete identifiable biological and cultural units on which natural (and indeed 3 other types of selection) act?  

Ev Cult’s Scientific Solution: See the HOLON/parton structure of all biology and culture, including the unit, scale-level, and its Three Laws. The mechanisms are evolutionary algorithms. The Three Laws of HOLON/partons causes Multi-Level Selection, namely Law #1, integrate upwards into a larger unit; Law #2, cooperate with other units on the same level, and Law #3, control and command the smaller units inside.

See (Velikovsky 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020) 

   

46

`What units are being actively selected in a process of natural selection? …this question is involved in the oldest forms of the units of selection debates (Darwin 1859, Haldane 1932, Wright 1945). …Slobodkin and Rapaport (1974, 184) assumed that a unit of selection is something that “responds to selective forces as a unit – whether or not this corresponds to a spatially localized deme, family, or population.”’

(Lloyd, 2007, p. 46)
 
The Problem: What are the units of natural selection in biology and culture? Are they indeed: individuals, families, populations, demes (cities), nations?  

Ev Cult’s Scientific Solution: See the HOLON/parton structure of all biology and culture, including the unit, scale-level, and its Three Laws. The mechanisms are evolutionary algorithms. The Three Laws of HOLON/partons causes Multi-Level Selection, namely Law #1, integrate upwards into a larger unit; Law #2, cooperate with other units on the same level, and Law #3, control and command the smaller units inside.  

See (Velikovsky 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020) 



47

`One is a member of a tribe, a nation, an ethnic group, a political party, or a religious faith… If we ever do manage to get past these particular forms of imagination, it will be only because we have succeeded in imagining that our individuality is intertwined with some still larger group—with humanity as a whole, or with the ecology of Earth as a whole.’

(Carroll in Carroll et al., 2016, p. xxxix)
 
The Problem: Will humanity ever be united–or, due to evolved Pleistocene human nature, will it ever remain: tribal? (Resulting in: group conflicts, nationalism, ongoing wars, inequality, injustice, widespread suffering, etc.?)  

Ev Cult’s Scientific Solution: See the HOLON/parton structure of all biology and culture, including the unit, scale-level, and its Three Laws, which naturally and logically suggests: One Ethical Global Culture, a singular Whole Earth Ethic, via an integrated holistic ethical system such as The EthiSizer.

See (Velikovsky 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020) 





48

`Philosophy cannot be content with analyzing the individual forms of human culture. It seeks a universal synthetic view which includes all individual forms. But is not such an all-embracing view an impossible task, a mere chimera? … Undoubtedly human culture is divided into various activities proceeding along different lines and pursuing different ends. If we content ourselves with contemplating the results of these activities—the creations of myth, religious rites or creeds, works of art, scientific theories—it seems impossible to reduce them to a common denominator. But a philosophic synthesis means something different. Here we seek not a unity of effects but a unity of action; not a unity of products but a unity of the creative process. If the term “humanity” means anything at all it means that, in spite of all the differences and oppositions existing among its various forms, these are, nevertheless, all working toward a common end. In the long run there must be found an outstanding feature, a universal character, in which they all agree and harmonize. If we can determine this character the divergent rays may be assembled and brought into a focus of thought.’

(Cassirer, 1944, p. 70)
 
The Problem: A universal, synthetic view of culture (finding a common denominator across all of culture) appears an impossible task, a hard problem. What is the universal character of culture? What is the unity of the creative process?  

Ev Cult’s Scientific Solution: The HOLON/parton structure of all culture (ideas, processes, products) and biology, including the unit, scale-level, and its Three Laws, and (as for the creative process) evolutionary algorithms, in these two self-coupled systems (bio-culture). Using the HOLON/parton lens, evolutionary algorithms (SVT, ST, BV-SR, i=P, etc) and thus the creative processes resulting in 1% canon and 99% archive are identical in both the substrates of biology and culture.

See (Velikovsky 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020) 




49

`As far as can be seen, there is no consensus on the notion of culture anywhere to be found.’

(van Peer et al., 2007, p. 30)
 
The Problem: There is no scientific definition of culture, thus no consensus across all disciplines/domains in culture on what, empirically, culture is.  

Ev Cult’s Scientific Solution: Culture in all domains is: problem-solutions (tools), as ideas, mental processes, physical processes, products. Also, see the HOLON/parton structure of all culture, including the unit, scale-level, and its Three Laws.

See (Velikovsky 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020) 





50

`The “discovery” of culture may one day rank in importance in the history of science with the heliocentric theory of Copernicus or the discovery of the cellular basis of all living forms.’

(White, 1949, p. 405)
 
The Problem: Astronomy, Physics, Chemistry, and Biology, are `hard’ sciences. What is needed is: The discovery of the structure, units, levels, mechanisms (evolutionary algorithms) and laws of Culture, in all disciplines.  

Ev Cult’s Scientific Solution: The meta-science of Evolutionary Culturology.

See (Velikovsky 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020) 




[Table: 50 Problem-statements, on the hard scientific problem of Culture]

…Any other quotes on the problem of culture most welcome (please add in the Comments!)

Ev Cult’s consilience column… (1 minute: YouTube)

————————————————————–

Dr J T Velikovsky

aka `Velikovsky of Newcastle’

Evolutionary Culturologist


FOOTNOTES

[i] For the approximate number of human senses, see for example: https://bigthink.com/surprising-science/think-you-have-only-5-senses-its-actually-a-lot-more-than-that/

REFERENCES

Acerbi, A., & Mesoudi, A. (2015). If we are all cultural Darwinians what’s the fuss about? Clarifying recent disagreements in the field of cultural evolution. Biology & Philosophy, 30(481–503).

Aristotle. (335 BCE). The Works of Aristotle (W. D. Ross, Trans.). Holy Books.

Barthes, R. ([1966] 1975). An Introduction to the Structural Analysis of Narrative. New Literary History, 6(2), 237-272.

Boyd, B., Carroll, J., & Gottschall, J. (2010). Evolution, Literature and Film: A Reader. Columbia University Press.

Carroll, J., McAdams, D. P., & Wilson, E. O. (Eds.). (2016). Darwin’s Bridge: Uniting the Humanities and Sciences. Oxford University Press.

Cassirer, E. (1944). An Essay on Man: An Introduction to a Philosophy of Human Culture. Yale University Press.

Charbonneau, M., & Bourrat, P. (in press). Fidelity and the grain problem in cultural evolution. Synthese.

Cooke, B., & Turner, F. (1999). Biopoetics: Evolutionary Explorations in the Arts. ICUS.

Dawkins, R. (1976). The Selfish Gene. Oxford University Press.

Dawkins, R. (1999). Foreword. In The Meme Machine. Oxford University Press.

Descartes, R. (1637). A Discourse on Method. Project Gutenberg. https://www.gutenberg.org/files/59/59-h/59-h.htm

James, W. (1880). Great Men, Great Thoughts, and the Environment. The Atlantic Monthly, 66, 441-459.

Laland, K. N., & Brown, G. R. (2002). Sense and Nonsense: Evolutionary Perspectives on Human Behaviour. Oxford University Press.

Leibniz, G. W. ([1666] 1956). Philosophical Papers and Letters. By G. W. Leibniz. (L. E. Loemker, Trans.). University of Chicago Press: Cambridge University Press.

Lenard, P. T. (2020). Culture. Stanford University. https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2020/entries/culture/

Lloyd, E. A. (2007). Units and Levels of Selection. In D. L. Hull & M. Ruse (Eds.), The Cambridge Companion to the Philosophy of Biology. Cambridge University Press.

Prinz, J. (2020). Culture and Cognitive Science. Stanford University. https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2020/entries/culture-cogsci/

Ramos, F., González, O., & Barthès, J.-P. (2012). A Model of Culture for Cognitive Agents. International Journal of Art, Culture and Design Technologies, 2(2), 1-13.

Stewart-Williams, S. (2018). The Ape that Understood the Universe: How the Mind and Culture Evolve. Cambridge University Press.

van Peer, W., Hakemulder, J., & Zyngier, S. (2007). Muses and Measures: Empirical Research Methods for the Humanities. Cambridge Scholars.

Webster, S. (2003). Thinking about Biology. Cambridge University Press.

White, L. A. (1949). The Science of Culture: A study of man and civilization. Farrar, Straus.

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One thought on “StoryAlity 170B – Quotes on the hard scientific problem of Culture

  1. Pingback: StoryAlity #174 – The Many Memes of Sir Karl Popper! | StoryAlity

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